My name is Mark Goodfield. Welcome to The Blunt Bean Counter ™, a blog that shares my thoughts on income taxes, finance and the psychology of money. I am a Chartered Professional Accountant and a partner with a National Accounting Firm in Toronto. This blog is meant for everyone, but in particular for high net worth individuals and owners of private corporations. The views and opinions expressed in this blog are written solely in my personal capacity and cannot be attributed to the accounting firm with which I am affiliated. My posts are blunt, opinionated and even have a twist of humor/sarcasm. You've been warned.

Monday, October 24, 2016

The New Principal Residence Reporting Requirements – Large Implications for the Average Canadian

On October 3, 2016, the Government announced administrative changes to the reporting requirements for the sale of a principal residence (“PR”) and the designation of the principal residence exemption (“PRE”), which provides for the tax-free sale of your home. The changes were premised on closing a tax loophole that allowed non-residents to buy homes and later claim a tax exemption on the sale by using family members or trusts. While I think the changes in reporting requirements were made in part to close this loophole, a skeptical person may think the government used the “foreign-buyer loophole” issue, to remedy lax reporting requirements for the sale of a PR by all Canadians.

In fact, I suggest the Government will get significantly more revenue from resident Canadians who have been misreporting the sale of their PR, than they will from foreign buyers. I see three (there are more than three, but these are the most obvious) potential areas the new rules will catch the average Canadian:
  1. Misunderstanding of the rules where you own both a home and a cottage 
  2. Divorce
  3. Flipping of houses

The New Reporting Requirements


Starting with the 2016 tax year, the new rules will require you to report the sale of your PR on Schedule 3 - Capital Gains or Losses, of your personal tax return. You will now be required to designate the property as your PR on Schedule 3. Previously, the administrative position of the Canada Revenue Agency (“CRA”) was that you were not required to report the sale of your PR if the property was your PR for every year you owned it.

If you do not designate the property as your PR for all the years you owned the property (such as where you had sold your cottage in a prior year and claimed the PRE for certain years), you are required to also file Form T2091.

I would not be surprised, if in the future, the CRA has follow-up information requests on PR sales, requesting the history of any prior PR sale that was not reportable under the old system to ensure there has been no duplication of the PRE.

History and Rules


Prior to 1982, a taxpayer and their spouse could each designate their own PR and each could claim their own PRE. Therefore, where a family owned a cottage and a family home, each spouse could potentially claim their own PRE, one on the cottage and one on the family home, and accordingly the sale or gifting of both properties would be tax-free.

However, for any year after 1981, a family unit (generally considered to be the taxpayer, his or his spouse or common-law partner and unmarried minor children) can only designate one property between them for purposes of the PRE. Although the designation of a property as a PR is a yearly designation, it is only made when there is an actual disposition of a home. For example, if you owned and lived in both a cottage and a house between 2001 and 2016 and sold them both in 2016, you could choose to designate your cottage as your PR for 2001 to 2003 and your house from 2004 to 2016 or any other permutation +1 (see formula calculation and discussion of the +1 rule below).

In order to decide which property to designate for which years after 1981, you must determine whether there is a larger gain per year on your cottage or your home in the city. Once that determination is made, in most cases it makes sense to designate the property with the larger gain per year as your personal residence for purposes of the PRE.

As if the above is not complex enough, anyone selling a cottage and claiming the PRE must also consider the following adjusted cost base adjustments:

1. If your cottage was purchased prior to 1972, you will need to know the fair market value (“FMV”) on December 31, 1971; the FMV of your cottage on this date became your cost base when the CRA brought in capital gains taxation.

2. In 1994 the CRA eliminated the $100,000 capital gains exemption; however, they allowed taxpayers to elect to bump the ACB of properties such as real estate to their FMV to a maximum of $100,000 (subject to some restrictions not worth discussing here). Many Canadians took advantage of this election and increased the ACB of their cottages.

3. Many people have inherited cottages. When someone passes away, they are deemed to dispose of their capital property at the FMV on the date of their death (unless the property is transferred to their spouse). The person inheriting the property assumes the deceased's FMV on their death, as their ACB.

4. Most people have made various capital improvements to their cottages over the years. For income tax purposes, these improvements are added to the ACB you have determined above. Examples of capital improvements would be the addition of a deck, a dock, a new roof or new windows that were better than the original roof or windows, new well or pump. General repairs are not capital improvements and you cannot value your own work if you are the handyman type.

The Actual PRE Formula


The actual calculation to determine your principal residence exemption is equal to:

The capital gain on the sale of your home multiplied by:

The number of years you have lived in your home plus 1 
The number of years you have owned the property

The one year bonus is meant to ensure you are not penalized when you move from one house to another in the same year.

The Three Potential Issues for Resident Canadians


Misunderstanding of the Rules Where You Own a Home and a Cottage


As noted above, the PRE rules are extremely complex and the formula is often misunderstood. Many Canadians have simply understood or pretended to understand that any sale of a home or a cottage was tax-free if it was used by you and your family. Since there were no reporting required on your tax return until these changes, the CRA could not track whether you were properly reporting the sale of your PR. The new reporting will now allow the CRA to track overlapping ownership periods (i.e. you bought your home in 1990 and your cottage in 2000 and sold your cottage in 2016 and claim the PRE for 16 years. The CRA will now have a record that you have used 16 years of your PRE and you cannot claim those 16 years when you sell your home). This required filing will also force you to consider any prior PRE claims that may have occurred during the 16 years above (say for example you had sold the home you purchased in 1990 in 2010 and purchased a new home that same year. Under this circumstance you could not claim 16 years PRE on your cottage).

As noted above, I would expect at some point in the future, to see information requests and audits of reported gains by the CRA, specifically asking about prior PRE claims to ensure there was no overlapping of of PRE claims.

Divorce


In June of this year, I wrote a post on the income tax implications of divorce where you owned a home and a cottage and the various misunderstandings of how to claim the PRE exemption that arise on divorce. You can read this post if it is of interest to you, but some of the key points I made were as follows:

1. A couple can only claim one PRE during the marriage (other than when a spouse who was throughout the year living apart from and was separated under a judicial or written separation agreement). This one PRE rule per couple is clearly noted in this interesting case, Balanko v The Queen.

2. It is vital that the right to the PRE or the allocation of the PRE must be accounted for in any marriage settlement, for both purposes of the actual claim, and the related income tax one of the spouses may incur. If the use of the exemption is not addressed in the separation agreement, it is then a first-come, first-served claim.

I would suggest that many divorced couples have inadvertently double claimed the PRE.

Flipping of Houses & Condominiums


The CRA has been going after “house and condominium flippers” for the last few years. However, since there has been no reporting requirement for the sale of a PRE, if a “flipper” felt or considered the sale to be of their PR, the CRA was constrained in tracking these house flips. While prior sales may be hard to audit, the new rules force someone flipping a house to report the gain as a PRE and I am sure any sale of homes and condominiums that are of short duration will be subject to follow-up or audit.

Assessment and Penalties


For the sale of a PR in 2016 or later years, the CRA will only allow the PRE if you report the sale and designation on your tax return. If you fail to report the sale, you will have to ask the CRA to amend your return. Under the proposed changes, the CRA will be able to accept a late designation but a penalty may apply, equal to the lesser of $8,000 and $100 for each month you are late from the original required filing. This is a potentially fairly large penalty for non-compliance. The period of re-assessment will also be extended where a disposition has not been reported.

Wow, what some may have seen as a fairly innocuous change to catch non-residents, will certainly have substantial implications on resident Canadians going forward and in some cases, on previous non-filings related to PRE claims.

This site provides general information on various tax issues and other matters. The information is not intended to constitute professional advice and may not be appropriate for a specific individual or fact situation. It is written by the author solely in their personal capacity and cannot be attributed to the accounting firm with which they are affiliated. It is not intended to constitute professional advice, and neither the author nor the firm with which the author is associated shall accept any liability in respect of any reliance on the information contained herein. Readers should always consult with their professional advisors in respect of their particular situation.

Monday, October 17, 2016

The Registered Disability Savings Plan – A Government-Assisted Savings Plan for Family Members that Qualify for the Disability Tax Credit

Last week, Katy Basi wrote about using Henson Trusts to estate plan for disabled beneficiaries.

Today, Howard Kazdan, a tax expert with BDO Canada LLP, discusses what a Registered Disability Savings Plan is and where it may be a useful tax planning vehicle for the parents of a disabled child.

I thank Howard and Katy for their excellent posts.

The Registered Disability Savings Plan – A Government-Assisted Savings Plan for Family Members that Qualify for the Disability Tax Credit

By Howard Kazdan


A Registered Disability Savings Plan (“RDSP”) is a savings plan that is intended to help parents and others save for the long term financial security of a person who is eligible for the disability tax credit (“DTC”). A person is eligible for the DTC only if a medical practitioner certifies on Form T2201, Disability Tax Credit Certificate, that this person has a severe and prolonged impairment in physical or mental functions. This form must also be approved by the CRA.

Where you have a family member living with a physical or mental disability, consideration should be given to opening a Registered Disability Savings Plan.

What is an RDSP?


RDSPs are tax deferred savings plans which can provide long-term financial benefits for a disabled individual resident in Canada. Qualifying individuals may receive grants and bonds that the Government of Canada contributes to the RDSP.

How does the RDSP work?


RDSPs can be opened by either a beneficiary who has reached the age of majority and is contractually competent to open an RDSP for themselves or, before 2019, by their parents or other legal representative.

There is no limit to how much can be contributed to an RDSP in any particular year, however, the lifetime maximum contribution limit is $200,000. Contributions can be made until the end of the year in which the disabled person turns 59.

It is important to note that there is no tax deduction for contributing to an RDSP. These plans are somewhat similar to a Registered Education Savings Plan (if you have opened such an account for your child’s education). On the flip side, when the original contributions are withdrawn, the disabled individual will not be taxed on those contributions. However, income earned and government grants (discussed below) and bonds received will be taxed when they are paid out of the RDSP. If the plan is established for a long period of time, and the investments earn a good rate of return, then this may provide a long deferral from paying tax.

Subject to certain contribution and age limits, RRSP/RRIF proceeds can be transferred to an RDSP through a will if the disabled individual is financially dependent upon the deceased. This allows parents or grandparents of a disabled individual, to tax and estate plan for a future contribution to an RDSP and may provide you with comfort if it is not otherwise possible to maximize the contributions before this point.

Government Grants


The Government of Canada pays a grant to the RDSP, until the end of the year in which the beneficiary turns 49, that is dependent on the beneficiary’s family income and the amount contributed. The maximum grant is $3,500 each year, to a lifetime maximum of $70,000. The contribution rules allow for a 10-year carryforward of entitlements, for those who qualify but cannot contribute every year.


Beneficiary's family income
Grant**
Maximum
$90,563 or less


on the first $500
$3 for every $1 contributed
$1,500
on the next $1,000
$2 for every $1 contributed
$2,000
more than $90,563 or no income information at available at CRA
on the first $1,000
$1 for every $1 contributed
$1,000
**The beneficiary family income thresholds are indexed each year to inflation. The income thresholds shown are for 2016.


For minors, family net income is that of their parent(s) or legal guardian(s). From the year the beneficiary turns 18, family net income is the combined net income of the beneficiary and their spouse.

The Government of Canada may also pay up to $1,000/year, to a maximum of $20,000, in a Canada disability savings bond to low-income Canadians until the beneficiary turns 49. No contributions are required once the RDSP is opened.

Taxation


Since RDSPs are intended to be a long-term savings vehicle, if money is withdrawn, all or part of the government grants and bonds that have been in the RDSP for less than 10 years may have to be repaid. The beneficiary must repay $3 for every $1 that is taken out, up to the total amount of grants and bonds paid into the RDSP in the last 10 years. This can be very punitive if funds are required urgently.

The minimum regular scheduled payments that must begin when the beneficiary turns 60 are determined by a complicated formula.

If an RDSP terminates because the beneficiary no longer qualifies for the DTC or dies, then:
  • grants and bonds that have been in the plan for less than 10 years must be repaid, and
  • amounts paid to the beneficiary or his/her estate related to investment income, grants and bonds will be taxable.
If you are disabled, or have a disabled child, you should consider opening an RDSP if you have not already done so, to provide additional government-assisted long-term financial security.

Before opening the plan, confirm with the Canada Revenue Agency that the DTC eligibility status of the plan holder is up-to date so the DTC can be claimed and the benefits of an RDSP can be enjoyed. This should be monitored in the future so the benefits are not lost.

RDSPs can be a useful tax planning tool for the parents of a disabled child. However, as noted above, there are many rules for which you need to familiarize yourself with.

Howard Kazdan is a Senior Tax Manager with BDO Canada LLP. He can be reached at 905-946-5459 or by email at hkazdan@bdo.ca

This site provides general information on various tax issues and other matters. The information is not intended to constitute professional advice and may not be appropriate for a specific individual or fact situation. It is written by the author solely in their personal capacity and cannot be attributed to the accounting firm with which they are affiliated. It is not intended to constitute professional advice, and neither the author nor the firm with which the author is associated shall accept any liability in respect of any reliance on the information contained herein. Readers should always consult with their professional advisors in respect of their particular situation.

Monday, October 10, 2016

Estate Planning for Disabled Beneficiaries – Henson Trusts

I have received several requests to write about tax and estate planning for disabled individuals. Thus, this week I have enlisted the help of Katy Basi, my resident wills and estate planning contributor, to write about Henson  trusts, an estate planning opportunity for disabled beneficiaries. Next week Howard Kazdan, a tax specialist with BDO Canada LLP, will write about Registered Disability Savings Plans ("RDSP's").

As Henson trusts are complex, I appreciate Katy providing a detailed analysis of the important issues to be considered in whether or not to use such a trust. So without further ado, here is Katy.

Estate Planning for Disabled Beneficiaries - Henson Trusts

By Katy Basi

It is fairly common for a client to come to me and say "my child has a disability and I've been told I need a Henson trust in my will - whatever that is...." My usual answer is "maybe - let's discuss your situation" - typical lawyer-speak but true nonetheless!

What is a Henson Trust


A Henson trust is a trust created in a will, or by way of a free-standing trust deed, which is completely discretionary and has a disabled beneficiary who is not also a trustee of the trust. “Completely discretionary” means that the trustee will have all decision making power with respect to the timing and amount of all payments made out of the trust. The benefit of having a Henson trust is that the disabled beneficiary’s interest in the trust is not considered to be an asset for purposes of the rules surrounding disability benefits in Ontario and in some other provinces (the “asset test”, in particular, limits the value of assets a recipient of disability benefits may own – further discussed below).

The term “Henson trust”, while common, does not have legal meaning in and of itself, but is generally taken to mean a trust having the attributes set out in the above paragraph. These trusts are called “Henson trusts” due to a court case in Ontario involving a father (last name being Henson) who established a trust of this nature for his disabled daughter. Her right to claim disability benefits was challenged (the government’s position was that her beneficial interest in the trust was a valuable enough asset to disqualify her). The Hensons won the case, based on their position that the beneficial interest in the trust did not have any value due to the discretionary nature of the trust. As the trustee could choose not to pay any of the trust funds to or for the benefit of the daughter, the beneficial interest was held not to have value for purposes of the disability benefit rules.

Planning Using a Henson Trust


In order to ascertain whether a Henson trust is appropriate planning for a client, I will usually ask about the nature of the disability, as this may impact:

  • the child's ability to eventually make capacitated financial and or health care decisions for him or herself,
  • their prospects of getting married and having children,
  • their life expectancy,
  • their ability to be financially independent,
  • their care requirements at various life stages, and
  • other factors that are relevant to their parent’s estate plan.

I will ensure that my client has investigated whether the disability tax credit (“DTC”) is available in relation to their child. We then discuss whether the child is likely to start claiming provincial disability benefits when they attain age 18, as the value placed on the availability of disability benefits varies greatly from parent to parent and affects whether Henson trust planning is appropriate.

Some disabled beneficiaries have good employment prospects, now or in the future, in which case disability benefits are really not relevant. When a disability does not affect the financial acumen of a beneficiary, and they are a relatively high functioning adult, the beneficiary may even receive an outright inheritance (i.e. not in any form of a trust, Henson or otherwise).

Some parents have a large estate, and want their child to have more access to their inheritance than would be permitted by Henson trust planning. These clients find the rules surrounding disability benefits very limiting and essentially assume that their child will not apply for benefits, which in turn makes other estate planning options available.

If disability benefits are important, then we discuss whether the child should inherit by way of a Henson trust set out in the parent’s will. Unfortunately, inheritances received in any way other than a Henson trust usually result in the recipient being cut off from disability benefits (for having access to assets valued at greater than $5,000 (the “asset test”)).

A Henson trust is, by necessity, limiting. As noted above, in order to have the Henson trust assets excluded from the asset test, the Henson trust must be drafted as a fully discretionary trust and the beneficiary cannot be the trustee. Essentially, the beneficiary cannot have the right to demand trust assets at any time, but must rely on the good judgment of the trustee. I have had a few clients decide against Henson trust planning for this reason alone.

When a Henson trust is a good choice, the selection of the trustee, and alternate trustees, is very important given their broad powers. The trustee has the fairly onerous task of managing the trust funds to optimize the quality of life of the disabled beneficiary, without cutting them off from disability benefits – like walking on a tightrope, with significantly more reading and longer telephone calls to the government.

Also, a beneficiary in addition to the disabled beneficiary is usually named in the Henson trust in the event that the trust lasts longer than 21 years. (After 21 years, all trust income must be distributed by an Ontario trust to or for the benefit of a beneficiary. Without an alternate beneficiary, this rule could force a trustee to allocate income to a disabled beneficiary, and disability benefits could potentially be lost.) Sometimes the alternate beneficiary is a charity, and sometimes a family member such as a sibling.

When, as commonly happens, a sibling is both the trustee and alternate beneficiary, there can be a conflict of interest, and the parent needs to be very sure that the sibling will “do the right thing” and not profit personally from the Henson trust unless absolutely necessary. In addition, Henson trusts are often drafted to last for the lifetime of the disabled beneficiary unless the trustee decides to wind up the trust early. (In the latter case, common planning is to require the trust funds to be paid to the disabled beneficiary, which may, or may not, be appropriate under the circumstances.)

Upon the death of the disabled beneficiary, there is often a distribution of remaining Henson trust funds to the siblings of the beneficiary. If a sibling is also the trustee, we can have a conflict of interest, as minimizing distributions for the benefit of the disabled beneficiary during their lifetime maximizes the funds potentially received by the sibling/trustee upon the death of the beneficiary. Obviously, the trustee must be a very trustworthy, morally upstanding sibling!

We also generally ensure that the Henson trust terms specifically permit the trustee to make contributions to a Registered Disability Savings Plan (“RDSP”) set up for the disabled beneficiary in order to optimize the payment of government grants and bonds. We usually advise that the trustee exercise some caution here, as any funds left in the RDSP upon the death of the disabled beneficiary flow in accordance with the disabled beneficiary’s will (or the law of intestacy if there is no will). This may, or may not, be the result desired by my client…

Finally, as of 2016 it will be helpful, from an income tax perspective, if a Henson trust meets the “qualified disability trust” (“QDT”) definition. QDTs are one of the few remaining trusts able to access the graduated rates of tax on income. (All trusts other than QDTs and graduated rate estates pay tax at the highest rate). For a Henson trust to qualify as a QDT, the disabled beneficiary must receive the DTC and elect with the trustee that the Henson trust is their one and only QDT. One issue (yet to be resolved) is that a recovery tax is applicable if anyone other than the disabled beneficiary receives capital from the trust. As noted above, this can easily happen upon the death of the disabled beneficiary. Another issue is that many disabled beneficiaries are not sufficiently mentally capacitated to sign the QDT election form for themselves, and have no court-appointed guardian to sign the election form for them. (Contrary to common belief, parents are not automatically the guardians of an incapacitated adult beneficiary, at law). To ensure QDT status, it may be necessary to apply to the court for a formal appointment of a guardian for the incapacitated beneficiary – which is, of course, costly and time consuming.

The good news is that careful estate planning can ensure that disabled beneficiaries are well cared for their entire lives, even after their parents are deceased, giving peace of mind to the entire family.

Please note that as I am licensed to practice law in Ontario only, this post is based on Ontario law. If you live outside of Ontario, it is strongly recommended that you consult with an estates lawyer licensed to practice in your province – the member directory of the Society of Trust and Estate Practitioners (“STEP”) at step.org is a good place to begin.

Katy has written numerous popular estate planning posts for this blog over the years including Estate Planning for Blended Families, Qualifying Spousal Trusts - What are They and Why do we Care? and a three part series on new will provisions for the 21st century dealing with your digital life, RESPs and reproductive assets, the family cottage and a very well received post titled, An Estate Fairy Tale.

Katy Basi is a barrister and solicitor with her own practice, focusing on wills, trusts, estates and income tax law (including incorporations and corporate restructurings). Katy practiced income tax law for many years with a large Toronto law firm, and therefore considers the income tax and probate tax implications of her clients' decisions. Please feel free to contact her directly at (905) 237-9299, or by email at katy@basilaw.com. More articles by Katy can be found at her website, basilaw.com. 

The above blog post is for general information purposes only and does not constitute legal or other professional advice or an opinion of any kind. Readers are advised to seek specific legal advice regarding any specific legal issues.

This site provides general information on various tax issues and other matters. The information is not intended to constitute professional advice and may not be appropriate for a specific individual or fact situation. It is written by the author solely in their personal capacity and cannot be attributed to the accounting firm with which they are affiliated. It is not intended to constitute professional advice, and neither the author nor the firm with which the author is associated shall accept any liability in respect of any reliance on the information contained herein. Readers should always consult with their professional advisors in respect of their particular situation. 

Monday, October 3, 2016

What Small Business Owners Need to Know - Eligible Capital Property Changes on the Horizon

In the 2014 Federal budget, the government announced it would begin public consultations (consultation is a code word for: we are making changes, but we will consider your thoughts on the matter) into repealing the rules that governed eligible capital property (ECP). They also proposed, subject to these consultations, that the ECP regime would be replaced by a new capital cost allowance (CCA) class.

Two years later, the 2016 Federal budget was released and not surprisingly, the legislation proposes the removal of the ECP regime and the introduction of a new CCA Class 14.1 effective January 1, 2017.

Many of you are probably saying to yourself, what the heck is ECP and why do I even care. Today, I will explain what ECP is and why you as a business owner should care about these changes.

What is ECP?


ECP is essentially “intangible assets” that do not qualify for the CCA rules (CCA is the tax word for depreciation). ECP also includes internally generated assets, such as goodwill, which are not reported on the balance sheet or tax return until there is a disposition of such. In addition to goodwill, some other common examples of ECP are:

  • Incorporation expenses
  • Customer lists
  • Trademarks
  • Farm Quotas
  • Patents and Licenses with indefinite life

What are the main changes?


The most impactful change will be to Canadian-Controlled Private Corporation’s (CCPC) and how the disposition of ECP is treated subsequent to December 31, 2016, which I will address separately in a bit more detail below.

The way the ECP regime works now is; 75% of any expense for ECP is added to a pool, and each year 7% of the remaining pool can be deducted on a declining balance in the company’s return against income. When ECP is sold, there may be recaptured depreciation which is fully taxable, plus effectively 50% of any resulting gain which is taxable as active business income. The other 50% of the gain goes into the Capital Dividend Account ("CDA"), which can be distributed to the shareholders tax free. See my blog post on the CDA if you are not familiar with this account.

The new rules will allow 100% of any expense for ECP to be included in a new CCA class (14.1), and each year 5% of the remaining pool can be deducted. Rules that currently govern CCA such as the half year rule and recapture will apply to the new 14.1 CCA class. When ECP is sold after December 31, 2016 in excess of capital cost, the resulting gain will be treated as a capital gain (unlike the active business income treatment noted above), such that 50% of the gain is taxable and taxed at the high investment income tax rates. This change will have the largest impact of these new rules.

I know this discussion is technical and complicated, but I need to set forth the new rules. I have an example below that will hopefully bring everything together and clarify the issue.

There are a number of other transitional rules (e.g. pre 2017 dispositions for non-calendar year ends straddling January 1, capital cost determinations) which this blog will not cover due to the complexities involved.

The new rules will allow you to deduct immediately the first $3,000 of incorporation expenses, with anything above the $3,000 going into class 14.1. In prior years only 75% of the expense was allowed and it took years and years to get the tax benefit.

What happens to my current ECP pool after December 31, 2016?


In general terms, whatever your ending ECP pool balance (Schedule 10 of the corporate tax return) is on December 31, 2016 will become the opening balance of Class 14.1 on January 1, 2017. As noted above, there are separate transitional rules for companies that have year ends that straddle January 1, 2017 but in general terms the ending ECP balance will equal the opening Class 14.1.

For any ECP incurred before 2017, the company will be able to use a 7% CCA rate for 10 years, consistent with the deduction rate of ECP that is currently in place. After 10 years the CCA rate will revert back to the 5% rate applicable for Class 14.1. In addition, in order to allow any small balances of pre 2017 ECP to be written off quickly, the Class 14.1 CCA deduction for 10 years will be the greater of $500 and the amount otherwise deductible (i.e. 7% of the pool).

Dispositions of ECP After 2016


As mentioned above, the biggest change going forward for CCPC’s is that for a sale prior to January 1, 2017, the gain is taxed as active business income, and for a sale subsequent to this date, the gain will be taxed as a capital gain. This is best reflected by using an example. So, let’s assume an Ontario CCPC sells goodwill that results in a $200,000 gain.

If the sale takes place on December 31, 2016, $100,000 (50% of the gain) will be taxable to the company as active business income, resulting in taxes owing of $15,000 if the small business deduction can be applied against the income, or $26,500 if the company’s income for the year is already over $500,000.

If the sale takes place on January 1, 2017, $100,000 (50% of the gain) will taxable to the company as a capital gain, resulting in taxes owing of $50,170, a portion of which would be refundable only after a taxable dividend is paid to the shareholder. The immediate taxes owing on this sale are $23,000 - $35,000 higher than if the sale had occurred one day earlier. It is important to note this is essentially a loss of a tax deferral, not an absolute tax cost; as the deferral of tax by retaining funds from the sale in the company is essentially lost under the new rules.


In both of the above scenarios, the other half of the 50% gain is still added to the Capital Dividend account of the company, and available for distribution to shareholders tax free, so no change in that regard. One small advantage to the new rules will be be the date you can make the tax free payment out of the capital dividend account. For sales of ECP before January 1, 2017 you would have to wait until the first day of the following tax year to pay out the capital dividend, whereas the new rules will allow the payment of the capital dividend as early as the day after the sale. 

Asset sales that include ECP will likely prove to be more difficult to negotiate after 2016 due to the higher tax cost, as the seller will be looking for a higher purchase price to cover the additional tax.

It may be prudent, in situations where your current accountant would not have this information, to begin compiling the following information:

  • Original cost and date of purchase of any ECP purchased in the past
  • Any ECP pool deductions taken from the time of purchase on any assets identified above

This information will assist your accountant in determining the gain on a disposition of ECP that occurs after January 1, 2017.

What planning can be done?


If your CCPC is planning on selling its business in the future via an asset sale or hybrid sale (versus a sale of shares), or selling any ECP of the company, serious thought should be given to completing this sale before January 1, 2017.

If your CCPC has a significant amount of internally generated goodwill, and no external method of sale is available before January 1, 2017, it may be possible to complete an internal reorganization to take advantage of the current ECP rules. This is extremely complicated and before you consider undertaking this type of transaction, you must speak with your accountant/tax advisor to determine if this is a viable option.

With less than 3 months until the transition date, if you think your company may be adversely affected by the new rules, now is the time to speak to your advisors.

I would like to thank Colin Sirr, Manager, Tax, for BDO Canada LLP for his extensive assistance in writing this post. If you wish to engage Colin for ECP tax planning, he can be reached at csirr@bdo.ca

This site provides general information on various tax issues and other matters. The information is not intended to constitute professional advice and may not be appropriate for a specific individual or fact situation. It is written by the author solely in their personal capacity and cannot be attributed to the accounting firm with which they are affiliated. It is not intended to constitute professional advice, and neither the author nor the firm with which the author is associated shall accept any liability in respect of any reliance on the information contained herein. Readers should always consult with their professional advisors in respect of their particular situation.