My name is Mark Goodfield. Welcome to The Blunt Bean Counter ™, a blog that shares my thoughts on income taxes, finance and the psychology of money. I am a Chartered Professional Accountant and a partner with a National Accounting Firm in Toronto. This blog is meant for everyone, but in particular for high net worth individuals and owners of private corporations. The views and opinions expressed in this blog are written solely in my personal capacity and cannot be attributed to the accounting firm with which I am affiliated. My posts are blunt, opinionated and even have a twist of humor/sarcasm. You've been warned.

Monday, July 31, 2017

The Best of The Blunt Bean Counter - Capital Dividends - A Tax-Free Withdrawal from your Company

This summer I am posting the "best of" The Blunt Bean Counter blog while I work on my golf game (which is not going well by the way, as my handicap has gone up 3 strokes since the beginning of the year). Notwithstanding my handicap increase, I just came back from an awesome trip to Cabot Links. The picture below of the 16th hole at Cabot Cliffs is a bit deceiving since the tee is actually to the left and further up, but it is a blind shot to a two tier green so no day in the park. Plus, when the wind blows it is crazy. The first day with no wind I actually hit to within 15 feet of the pin, the next day with huge winds I aimed ten yards out to the ocean and the ball still blew left of the green, pretty crazy.


Anyways, back to the topic at hand. Next week I start a three-part series on cottages, but today, I am re-posting a March 2015 post that discussed how small corporate business owners can take advantage of the Capital Dividend Account ("CDA"). Given I had over 80 comments, it was of definite interest.

As per my post last week, Tax Planning Using Private Corporations - The New Liberal Proposals there may be future tax changes that impact the CDA. However, at this time, I cannot state with any certainty how those changes may impact the CDA account. 


Capital Dividends - A Tax-Free Withdrawal from your Company


If you are a private corporate business owner, you may be sitting on a treasure trove of tax-free money. Yes, I said tax-free money. The source of these “free” funds is the CDA, which I discuss in greater detail below. Although a CDA account is most often found in holding/investment companies, the largest accounts are often generated in active companies who have sold all or part of their business.


Private business owners often discuss with their professional advisors whether they should take salary and/or dividends, which are both taxable to the owner when paid. However, surprisingly, the possibility of paying a tax-free dividend is often overlooked, which is possible if the dividend is paid from the Capital Dividend Account (“CDA”) of a private corporation to a Canadian resident individual.

The Capital Dividend Account


The CDA tracks certain amounts that are not taxable to the Company and may be distributed to shareholders with no personal tax. For example:

(i) if the company earns a capital gain which is 50% taxable, the half that is not taxable is added to the CDA.

(ii) if the company was paid a capital dividend from another company it invested in, that amount is not taxable and is added to the CDA.

(iii) if the company sells a particular eligible capital property (“ECP”) in the year, the portion of the gain that is not taxable is added to the CDA. Please note that the addition to the CDA occurs at the end of the year in which the sale of the ECP took place. As a result, the CDA cannot be paid out tax-free until the first moment of the following taxation year (there have been significant changes to the ECP rules since I wrote this post, please speak to your accountant. For reference, I wrote this blog post on the changes).

(iv) if the company receives proceeds from a life insurance policy which are considered to be non-taxable, this is added to the CDA.

(v) if the company incurs a capital loss, 50% of such amount that will not be deductible in the current or future years against capital gains and will reduce the CDA.

Filing and Declaring a Capital Dividend


The following are the filing procedures and considerations as to the timing of declaring a capital dividend:

i) For the dividend to be tax-free, the company needs to make an election on Form T2054 - Election for a Capital Dividend Under Subsection 83(2), which is due to be filed with the Canada Revenue Agency on or before the earlier of the day that the dividend is paid or becomes payable.

A certified copy of the Director(s) resolution authorizing the capital dividend and a detailed calculation of the CDA at the earlier of the date the capital dividend is paid or becomes payable must accompany the Form T2054.

If the Form T2054 and attachments are filed late, a penalty will arise.

ii) If the Canada Revenue Agency reviews the election and determines that the capital dividend paid (or declared) was too high, then a penalty, equal to 3/5 of the excess of dividend over the CDA balance available, will arise.

It is possible to avoid such penalty if an election is made to treat the excess portion as a taxable dividend at the time it is paid, and such election is filed within 90 days after the date of the notice of assessment in respect of the tax on the excess, noted above.

To avoid these negative consequences, it is important to properly calculate the CDA.

iii) The CDA is a cumulative account from the date of incorporation (assuming it has always been a private corporation). If the company has not previously filed a Form T2054, it will be necessary to review the historical capital gains and losses and corporate activities from the date of incorporation to the date of the dividend in order to determine the correct CDA balance.

iiii) The CDA is paid at a moment in time. If you have a CDA balance but incur a loss the next day, your CDA balance is reduced. Thus, in general, it is prudent to pay a CDA dividend when the account reaches a material amount (this amount is different to each person) so that you do not take the risk of a capital loss reducing the balance in the account. If you pay a capital dividend and then incur a capital loss, the account can go negative.

Further analysis may be required for any non-resident shareholders, since a payment from the CDA to a non-resident of Canada is subject to non-resident withholding tax and the dividend may be taxable in their country of residence.

Journal Entries


Some companies reflect capital dividends by adjusting journal entry (“AJE”), rather than paying the actual dividend. Where the dividend is paid by AJE, the shareholder loan is credited. This creates a tax-free loan owing from the company to the shareholder. The CRA has stated that an AJE on its own does not constitute payment of the funds and that a demand promissory note accepted by the recipient as absolute payment together with an indication of such an intention in the resolutions is at a minimum required to have the dividend considered paid and received.

Balance Determination


Where a company has had more than one accountant and/or has amalgamated with other corporations in the past, the determination of the CDA can be problematic. The CRA now allows you to file Schedule 89 to help your verify the account. Note, they may only verify part of the years, so for older companies, this may still be problematic.

Speak with your accountant to see if your private company has a CDA balance. If so, paying out a capital dividend should be considered as part of your Company’s overall remuneration strategy.

 
This site provides general information on various tax issues and other matters. The information is not intended to constitute professional advice and may not be appropriate for a specific individual or fact situation. It is written by the author solely in their personal capacity and cannot be attributed to the accounting firm with which they are affiliated. It is not intended to constitute professional advice, and neither the author nor the firm with which the author is associated shall accept any liability in respect of any reliance on the information contained herein. Readers should always consult with their professional advisors in respect of their particular situation.

1 comment:

  1. Thanks, Blunt Bean Counter!
    I just sent this to my accountant and Tweeted it. I realize that we're in flux and you can't say what's going to happen, but in the meantime, it seems to me that filling out a form can't hurt, although of course I have no knowledge of CDA's yet.
    Has anyone else ever tried this?
    Thanks again, BBC!

    ReplyDelete