My name is Mark Goodfield. Welcome to The Blunt Bean Counter ™, a blog that shares my thoughts on income taxes, finance and the psychology of money. I am a Chartered Professional Accountant. This blog is meant for everyone, but in particular for high net worth individuals and owners of private corporations. My posts are blunt, opinionated and even have a twist of humour/sarcasm. You've been warned. Please note the blog posts are time sensitive and subject to changes in legislation or law.

Monday, May 12, 2014

Rental Properties - Everything You Always Wanted to Know, but Were Afraid to Ask

In August 2011, I posted a blog titled “The Income Tax implications of Purchasing a Rental Property”. There are 300 comments and answers on this post (so many that I added a note at the end of the blog a while back, that I would stop answering questions on this specific post). I recently read through the comments and realized there were several excellent questions that have probably been “lost” in the morass of questions. Today, I have decided to highlight some of the better questions. In some cases I have expanded my answers.

Questions and Answers Related to Rental Properties

Q: With respect to rental income being considered passive and therefore taxed at the high rate - is there are certain point or threshold when a real estate company's rental income is considered active and therefore eligible for the small business deduction? Is it still considered passive when you grow to a certain number of properties or employees?

A: Chris, great question, the answer is yes. A real estate company would be considered a specified investment business and not eligible for the small business deduction. However, if the corporation employs greater than 5 full time employees, the income is deemed active and eligible for the small business rate of 15.5% or so depending upon your province. I have clients with multiple corporations, each owning a single rental property. If one of the corporations has more than five employees, who really are also employees of the other corporations, it may be problematic to claim the active tax rate in that corporation. You may be able to utilize a management company, however, where the rental properties are residential, they cannot claim back the HST they pay, so a management company may not work.

Q: This is the best rental property tax blog that I have seen for Canada (Bloggers note: I just selected this question because of the opening sentence to this question :).

My question is about net loss and the government. My husband and I make over $300K in combined income. We own a 1.3 Million dollar home and it has no mortgage. We are looking at purchasing a property which is close to 2 million dollars and finance the whole amount (based on LOC and new mortgage). It will clearly generate a net loss even if we get the maximum rental income. We have done the math and the savings on taxes and a moderate appreciation of the property is well worth it. We currently have a condo rental
which has generated a modest profit for the past 5 years. Does the government care if you generate a loss for an extended period of time (over 10 years)? Thank You!

A: Flattery will usually get you everywhere. But in your case, it will only get you a link to a Torys LLP newsletter. Although the link is dated, it should answer your question.This is really a question on the "reasonable expectation of profit" doctrine.

The key comment in the Tory's newsletter is the following: “Essentially the court have held that where an activity is a commercial activity – that is, it does not have a personal element-there should not be judicial or CRA scrutiny of the taxpayers business judgment for the purpose of determining whether or not the activity is a source of income".

As per the comment above, commercial activities are problematic for the CRA to attack, so they have been going after taxpayers who claim losses with any kind of personal element.

Q: My husband and I have a duplex in both our names. Both units are rented out at this time. My husband is the sole provider for the family and I stay at home with the kids. My question is how do we claim the rental? Do we claim it 50/50 or does my husband claim 100% since he is responsible for the expenses etc.

A: Legally if ownership is 50/50, you must report the income 50/50. However, for income tax, there is the issue of income attribution. i.e.: whose money was used to purchase the property or was it a Line of Credit with both names. If your husband used his money and put the property in both your names, then technically all the rental income or losses should be reported by him. Although technically incorrect, many spouses seem to ignore the attribution rules and report income/losses on a 50/50 basis.
Q: Hi, I love your blog and how accessible you are, thank you so much for your contributions! I have a very old house that I have been renting for five years now. The roof has to be repaired or it will soon start to leak. We want to replace the roof with life-time guaranteed shingles. Is this kind of expense a current expense since it's required to maintain the current quality of the house or a capital expense since it also increases the value of the property?

A: Great question. Technically the CRA may say you have improved your roof by purchasing shingles that are better than the prior shingles or the lifetime guarantee makes them better than the prior shingles and thus the cost should be capitalized. However, I would suggest that the majority of accountants would likely expense the cost and argue this is purely a repair, but it is not 100% clear. 

Q: I purchased a revenue property in Quebec 5 years ago and I am planning on possibly selling it this year. Can I amortize the capital gains from the sale over 5 years? I am considering possibly selling it and buying another revenue property immediately afterwards. I.e. during the same year. I was told that if did do this then the capital gains from the sale of the property would not need to be declared since I am using the profit to buy another property. Is this true?

A: For capital gains there is typically a five year reserve available where all the proceeds have not been received on sale, see this example. In respect of the second part of this question, you are asking about the replacement property rules. These rules would not typically apply to rental property purchases and re-purchases, but relate to business properties replaced. This paper from CGA Magazine discusses the issue.

Q: I have a couple of rental houses and currently considering incorporating them to credit proof my personal assets. I understand that the rental income is treated as passive income so no benefit, but is there a difference if the rental property was sold through a corporation or held personally - i.e. can the capital gain be reduced capital gains exemption?

A: The capital gains exemption is not available on the sale of shares where the underlying asset is a rental property not used in an active business. The benefit of incorporation is pretty much creditor proofing and maybe some income splitting with your spouse depending upon the circumstances.

Q: Hi, Great blog. I purchased a 2 floor office condo (525k, 2800 soft) and its part of a 6 unit block of 2 floor office condos. One floor I rent out and one floor I use for my business. I can't find anything to indicate the value of the land for tax allocation. Do you think using the 10% rule of thumb would be appropriate in this situation and would a rule of thumb satisfy CRA?

A: Where there is no hard evidence to determine the allocation between land and the building, it would not be unusual for many accountants to use 10% for land related to a condo. That does not mean it is correct and that the CRA would not challenge the allocation, however, I have not seen the CRA challenge this.

Q: What are the tax implications of purchasing a home for myself and family to live in as our primary residence and renting out the basement. Would it be the same implication if we put an addition on the house but we still occupied more than 50%. Thanks.

A: This is what the CRA says, I think their response answers both your questions.

"It is the CRA’s practice not to apply the deemed disposition rule, but rather to consider that the entire property retains its nature as a principal residence, where all of the following conditions are met:

a) the income–producing use is ancillary to the main use of the property as a residence;
b) there is no structural change to the property; and
c) no CCA is claimed on the property.

These conditions can be met, for example, where a taxpayer carries on a business of caring for children in the home, rents one or more rooms in the home, or has an office or other work space in the home which is used in connection with business or employment. In these and similar cases, the taxpayer reports the income and may claim the expenses (other than CCA) pertaining to the portion of the property used for income–producing purposes".

Q: I have a question about % used for business on my tax return. We have a cottage rental property. We open it in the spring and close it in the fall. Out of the 16 available weeks, it was rented 12 weeks, vacant 1 week, and personal use for 3 weeks. The 1 vacant week was advertised for rent but we did not get a booking. The remaining 36 weeks a year, the cottage is not accessible, the roads are not maintained and the
cottage is not heated.

How do I calculate percentage used for business? Is it just the rented weeks (12) or available for rent weeks (13)? And in the denominator, can I use 16 weeks or do I have to use the whole year.

A: See the discussion in this paper about your issue.

The paper says this. “In the Morris case, the decided that the portion of the operating losses to be written off against income was the percentage that is was available for rent during the operating season. Since the cottage was frozen for a portion of the year and therefore not rentable, the expenses for that period of time were not deductible.

As a result of these decisions and others, the Canada Revenue Agency is taking the position that if you use the property personally and rent it out the rest of the time, your business use is only the period when you can "Reasonably expect to rent out the property.”

Keep in mind that this is the CRA’s view, I am sure lots of people do not necessarily agree with their position, but if you take an alternative position, you may be challenged.

As you will have observed from the above Q&A, some of the income tax issues that arise in respect of owing a rental property are complicated or fall into a murky grey area. I would suggest that if you own a rental property, you should probably have an accountant assist with your income tax return.

The blogs posted on The Blunt Bean Counter provide information of a general nature. These posts should not be considered specific advice; as each reader's personal financial situation is unique and fact specific. Please contact a professional advisor prior to implementing or acting upon any of the information contained in one of the blogs. Please note the blog post is time sensitive and subject to changes in legislation or law.


  1. Hi there,

    I've combed your previous posts but can't find a satisfactory answer to my specific question...

    My wife and I have two rental properties, and are considering ramping up to ten properties in total.

    We have a numbered company, but still can't grasp the benefit/drawback to purchasing and renting through a corporation.

    We're both in the top tax bracket and need write-offs. In my mind, this means we should purchase personally.

    Also, we're not taking CCA on either house presently. Should we?


    1. Hi Anon

      I have a future post on claiming CCA, however, I am not sure if will be posted before the end of June or in September.

      See my post today or whether to incorporate.

      Many of my clients incorporate each rental property separately in its own company solely for creditor proofing, although some have a couple in the same company. You are correct, if you could not be sued, everyone would purchase their properties personally, however, people are concerned one lawsuit will put all their personal assets and (10)rental properties at risk, and that is why they incorporate. If you are not concerned about being sued, then you could buy the properties personally and possibly claim CCA, that is a personal decision and you must weigh the risk.

  2. Hi Mark

    I own rental properties and I have no spouse. When I die, Do my son have to pay capital gain tax right away ? the properties are under my name alone and in my will everything will go to my son. what would be the best way to transfer these properties to my son ? or what would be the best way to minimize the tax when I die ? both properties still have mortgage on them.
    thank you

    1. Hi Supatra

      I dont provide personal tax planning advice on this blog, but I will tell you that if the properties are left to your son, then they will be deemed sold for tax on your death and your estate will have to pay tax on unrealized gains and maybe recaptured depreciation.

      You may want to engage an accountant to see if they can minimize this issue.

  3. interested to know if it is of any benefit that i pay down my rental property mortgage faster.
    At present I make minimum mortgage payments and claim interest expense against my rental income. Is there a benefit to me paying this mortgage down faster?
    Also; a second rental I have which was my principal residence for seven years and coming up on three years renting; when I sell.. am i correct to assume I only pay capital gains on 30% as 70% would be considered my principal residence for the 7 of 10 years?

    1. Hi Anon

      It depends, no correct answer. Do you like being debt free? Some people sleep better. What can you do with the money you will pay down the mtge with and what return could you get?

      Part 2- again depends? Did you make a 45(2) election, you may also be able to use the plus 1 in the PRE formula to reduce the amount that is taxable.

  4. Hi Mark - I owned a vacation condo for several years that I sold in 2015 for a $10,000 loss. I used the condo 75% to earn rental income and 25% personal use. I understand that I can claim a terminal loss on form T776 for the rental portion. Do I have to report the full amount of the sale on Schedule 3 - even though I have a capital loss. Or do I just report the sale of the personal portion on Schedule 3 under personal property. Thank you!

    1. Hi Steve

      I am not sure off the top of my head and dont have the time right now to look it up. Sorry

  5. I have leased my principal residence out in July 2015 on a rent to own bases. tenants had 1 year to decide, and all lease income would go towards the purchase price. therefore i did not claim the income on my 2016 tax return as it might have gone towards the purchase price. In July 2016 they decided not to buy, How will the CRA look at this situation?

    1. Hi Anon:

      You have a couple issues, did you make a 45(2) election when you rented your house? You also need to report the rental income. I would engage an accountant to assist you with sorting out what you should do.

  6. Hi BBC,
    Love your blog. Would day trading currencies be considered a specified investment business? Positions are frequent and held for hours.

    1. Hi Unknown:

      A day trading business would likely be considered regular business income, not a SIB. This is a complex area, speak to an accountant to review your situation specifically.